Giorgio De Chirico (Volos, 1888 - Rome, 1978) is an Italian painter, one of the most relevant artistic figures of the twentieth century and founder of metaphysical painting with Carlo Carrà.
The first works painted in Munich around 1908 are inspired by the art of Arnold Böcklin and Max Klinger, exponents of German Symbolism, in the choice of themes drawn from classical mythology (Triton and Mermaid, 1909; The departure of the Argonauts, 1909): this research, focused on adding to his painting the sense of secret melancholy perceived in the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche, guide the birth of his first metaphysical work, L'énigme d'un après-midi d'automne in 1910.
The following year, his transfer to Paris to reach his brother Andrea (later known as Alberto Savinio) led to the immersion in an environment of great incentives and his first two exhibitions, at the 1912 Salon d'Autoumne and the Salon des Indépendants of 1913, are crucial in establishing contacts with the poet Guillaume Apollinaire, who will take care of the first critical text, and with the art dealer Paul Guillaume, who will offer him the first contract for his artistic production in 1914; thanks to his connection with the Stieglitz Gallery, the paintings of De Chirico and Savinio began to be known in the United States even before, in 1915, they both enlisted in the army. Instanced in Ferrara, De Chirico met Filippo de Pisis and Carlo Carrà, with whom he published the theoretical foundations of metaphysical painting at the magazine Valori Plastici, the theoretical foundations of metaphysical painting.
He exhibited in Berlin (1921) and returned to Paris: the painting of this period, in which he studied archeology, explored the metaphysics of light and Mediterranean myth, giving rise to themes such as archaeologists, horses by the sea, trophies , the Landscapes in the room, the Furniture in the valley and the Gladiators; he also creates scenes and costumes for Pirandello's La Giara at the Théâtre des Champs Elysées and for the ballet Le Bal, produced by Serge Diaghilev's Russian Ballets. The contacts with the surrealists of André Breton, of which he had become the main inspirer, are irreparably broken when they publicly criticize this production; in return, however, De Chirico becomes attached to the Italian artists operating in Paris, with whom he will exhibit in 1932 at the Biennale di Venezia in the room dedicated to them: Mario Tozzi, Massimo Campigli, Alberto Magnelli and Gino Severini.
The international success of the artist continues to grow on the occasion of the solo exhibition at the Pierre Matisse Gallery in 1940 and the creation of a dining room at the Decorators Picture Gallery in New York in which Picasso and Matisse also participate; he was also appointed as a member of the Royal Society of British Artists in 1948. The first terracotta sculptures date back to the second half of the thirties, then cast in bronze around the end of the sixties, which take up his favorite subjects by returning them in three dimensions (Gli Archeologi, 1966; Le Muse Inquietanti, 1970; Ettore e Andromaca, 1971).
The most important and complete anthology of those years was dedicated to him in Milan, at Palazzo Reale, in 1970, but it is from abroad that important prizes and awards continue to arrive, as well as other anthologies in the most important cities in the world, which intensify starting from the artist's death in 1978 - when, finally also in Italy, the undisputed success of the critics arrives.
His works are now in the main museums of the world: from MoMA in New York to the Center Pompidou in Paris.
In 2009 the Galleria d'Arte Maggiore g.a.m. collaborated with the Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris to realize the exhibition “Giorgio de Chirico. La fabrique des reves ”, the most complete retrospective so far ever made on his work. In 2013 on the occasion of the Italian Year of Culture to the United States and in collaboration with the Italian Minestry of Foreigns Affairs and with the Italian Embassy in Washington D.C., Maggiore g.a.m. curated and promoted the exhibition "Myth and Archeology in the work of Giorgio De Chirico" in the prestigious Phillips Collection of Washington DC, also highlighting the sculptural production and re-reading the work of De Chirico in a contemporary key thanks to an interview made by the then director of the MAMbo in Bologna, Gianfranco Maraniello, together with the successful Italian artist Francesco Vezzoli.